Robert cecil 3rd marquess of salisbury
Profile for Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury from Salisbury: Victorian Titan (page 1)
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 5th Marquess of Salisbury
James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury
A member of the Conservative Party , he was the last Prime Minister to head his full administration from the House of Lords. Lord Robert Cecil was first elected to the House of Commons in and served as Secretary of State for India in Lord Derby 's Conservative government from until his resignation in over its introduction of Benjamin Disraeli 's Reform Bill that extended the suffrage to working-class men. In upon the death of his father, Cecil was elevated to the House of Lords. In , when Disraeli formed an administration, Salisbury returned as Secretary of State for India, and, in , was appointed foreign secretary, and played a leading part in the Congress of Berlin , despite his doubts over Disraeli's pro-Ottoman policy. After the Conservatives lost the general election and Disraeli's death the year after, Salisbury emerged as Conservative leader in the House of Lords, with Sir Stafford Northcote leading the party in the Commons.
He started public life early, being of a very young age when he accompanied his father to the — Constantinople Conference and a year later to the Congress of Berlin. He was elected for Rochester at a by-election in , continuing as MP there until ,  when he succeeded his father and was elevated to the House of Lords. Lord Cranborne was appointed lieutenant-colonel of the 4th Militia battalion Bedfordshire Regiment formerly the Hertfordshire Militia on 29 October , and was in command when the battalion saw active service in South Africa from March to November , during the Second Boer War. The battalion, numbering 24 officers and men, left Queenstown on 27 February in the transport Goorkha , with Lord Cranborne as the senior officer in command,  arriving in Cape Town the following month. In July he received the Honorary Freedom of the borough of Hertford in recognition of his service during the war.
He was the first British Prime Minister of the 20th century and the last Prime Minister to head his full administration from the House of Lords. Salisbury is seen as an icon of traditional, aristocratic conservatism. The Conservative historian Robert Blake considered Salisbury "the most formidable intellectual figure that the Conservative party has ever produced". The Conservative historian Maurice Cowling claimed that "The giant of conservative doctrine is Salisbury". Attlee immediately replied: "Salisbury".
Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour, KG, OM, PC, FRS, FBA.
death of the outsider time
Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury
Lord Salisbury was the last prime minister to run Britain from the House of Lords, for most of the period between June and his retirement in He held the office altogether for close to fourteen years, which outdid Gladstone, and for most of that time he was his own foreign secretary. He viewed Continental Europe with a wary eye and avoided long-term alliances and commitments. He was not rigidly opposed to change and his government laid the foundations of the welfare state in the s, but he distrusted emotionalism, theorists and phrase-mongers, and his administrations were sparing with new legislation. They also helped to put a damper on the progress of the revolutionary Left in Britain. He owned Hatfield House, a London house in Arlington Street and some 20, acres in Hertfordshire and other counties. His wealth, social position and intellectual brilliance sustained his political independence and natural authority, and a happy marriage in to a middle-class wife, Georgina Alderson, produced eight children.
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during the reign of Queen Victoria three times: — , — and — Salisbury had two older brothers. James Gascoyne-Cecil, Viscount Cranborne, a historian and the heir to their father until he died unmarried at the age of 43 and Lord Arthur who had died in early childhood. After attending a preparatory school near Hatfield, ten-year-old Salisbury went to Eton College where he was unmercifully bullied. With the permission of his father, Salisbury withdrew from Eton when he was fifteen-years-old and was then educated by a tutor at his family home, Hatfield House. Memories of the bullying, remained with him his whole life and had a profound effect upon his personality. He joined the Oxford Union , a debating society, where he developed a bitter and ironic debating technique he later used in Parliament.