Facts about king philip the second
Philip of Spain by Henry KamenPhilip II of Spain, ruler of the most extensive empire the world had ever known, has been viewed in a harsh and negative light since his death in 1598. Identified with repression, bigotry, and fanaticism by his enemies, he has been judged more by the political events of his reign than by his person. This book, published four hundred years after Philips death, is the first full-scale biography of the king. Placing him within the social, cultural, religious, and regional context of his times, it presents a startling new picture of his character and reign.
Drawing on Philips unpublished correspondence and on many other archival sources, Henry Kamen reveals much about Philip the youth, the man, the husband, the father, the frequently troubled Christian, and the king. Kamen finds that Philip was a cosmopolitan prince whose extensive experience of northern Europe broadened his cultural imagination and tastes, whose staunchly conservative ideas were far from being illiberal and fanatical, whose religious attitudes led him to accept a practical coexistence with Protestants and Jews, and whose support for Las Casas and other defenders of the Indians in America helped determine government policy. Shedding completely new light on most aspects of Philips private life and, in consequence, on his public actions, the book is the definitive portrayal of Philip II.
Philip II B. He suppressed his feudal barons, forged a professional army infused with a national spirit, and developed novel military tactics. Philip cherished his Greek heritage. Some Greeks, especially the hostile Athenian Demosthenes, disclaimed his and the Macedonians' claim to membership in the Greek race and labeled Philip a barbarian or non-Greek. This left him with a marked inferiority complex. Culturally the Macedonians were less advanced than their southern Greek neighbors, had remained rural rather than urban, and retained a strongly Indo-European feudal and tribal sociopolitical structure. As king, Philip would actively work to import Greek culture to Macedon and to increase trade and urbanization.
Philip II is considered one of the greatest sovereigns in the History of Spain in terms of leading global exploration and colonial expansion across the Atlantic and the Pacific , and became for a time the foremost global power. During his reign, Philip II stretched his empire across continents, creating one of the vastest empires ever known and re-shaping the political map of the world. On the one hand, this imperial project played havoc on the lives of many in the New World, seizing their land, their gold , and destroying their cultural heritage and sometimes enforcing conversion to Christianity. The cultural and religious arrogance of this and of other European imperial projects robbed the whole human race of much of its patrimony. At home, through the Spanish Inquisition , Philip impoverished Spain's intellectual life even as he filled the state's coffers with treasure from overseas. On the other hand, millions of people around the world today speak Spanish and feel a kinship with others who homelands were also within the Spanish sphere of influence.
Philip II was a member of the Habsburg dynasty. He served as king of the Spaniards from to and as king of the Portuguese as Philip I from to The Spanish empire under Philip prospered: it attained its greatest power, extent, and influence. Philip was the self-proclaimed protector of the Roman Catholic Church. Philip was prepared to succeed Charles almost from birth. In Charles gave the duchy of Milan to Philip. In Charles resigned the Netherlands to Philip.
His reign as Spain's king began the Golden Age, a period of great cultural growth in literature, music and the visual arts.
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The rise of Macedon during the reign of Philip II was achieved in party by his reformation of the Ancient Macedonian army, establishing the Macedonian phalanx that proved critical in securing victories on the battlefield. After defeating Athens and Thebes at the Battle of Chaeronea in BC, Philip II led the effort to establish a federation of Greek states known as the League of Corinth, with him as the elected hegemon and commander-in-chief of a planned invasion of the Archaemenid Empire of Persia. In his youth, Philip II was held as a hostage in Illyria under Bardylis and then was held in Thebes, which was then the leading city of Greece. While a captive there, Philip received a military and diplomatic education from Epaminondas, became eromenos of Pelopidas, and lived with Pammenes, who was an enthusiastic advocate of the Sacred Band of Thebes. Originally appointed regent for his infant nephew Amyntas IV, who was the son of Perdiccas III, Philip succeeded in taking the kingdom for himself that same year. He first had to remedy a predicament which had been greatly worsened by the defeat against the Illyrians in which King Perdiccas himself had died. The Paionians and the Thracians had sacked and invaded the eastern regions of Macedonia, while the Athenians had landed, at Methoni on the coast, a contingent under a Macedonian pretender called Argeus.
He was born in Valladolid , and was the only son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and his wife to live until he was an adult. He was Catholic. His rule was filled with troubles that caused him to be harsh on his people and other nations. For the first seven years of his life, Philip moved between different castles with his mother. In he moved into a private house in Salamanca to start his schooling.