Short note on british east india company
The Honourable Company: a History of the English East India Company by John KeayDuring 200 years the East India Company grew from a loose association of Elizabethan tradesmen into the grandest society of merchants in the universe. As a commercial enterprise it came to control half the worlds trade and as a political entity it administered an embryonic empire. Without it there would have been no British India and no British Empire. In a tapestry ranging from Southern Africa to north-west America, and from the reign of Elizabeth I to that of Victoria, bizarre locations and roguish personality abound. From Bombay to Singapore and Hong Kong the political geography of today is, in some respects, the result of the Company. This book looks at the history of the East India Company.
The East India Company -- 400 Years: Britain & India -- Episode 1
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or By , at the height of its rule in India, the British East India company had a private army of about Equally valuable was the ship's rutter (mariner's handbook) containing vital information on the China, India, and Japan trades.
Essay on East India Company
The East India Company began as a joint-stock enterprise incorporated by royal charter; established a trading monopoly with East Asia, Southeast Asia , and India; and became progressively involved in both domestic and international politics. It played a vital role in securing Britain's hegemony over maritime shipping and was instrumental in the foundation of the British Empire in India. With settlements in the Indian coastal cities of Bombay, Surat, Calcutta, and Madras, the Company exported cotton and silk piece goods, indigo, saltpeter, and spices in exchange for bullion, eventually expanding its trade to the Persian Gulf , parts of Southeast Asia , and East Asia, including China, in the nineteenth century. Merging in with its main competitor to form an exclusive monopoly, the Company was run by twenty-four directors elected annually by a Court of Proprietors, who also exerted powerful influence in the British Parliament. In India the Company obtained a Mughal charter of duty- free trade , and invested heavily in local manufacture, especially textiles, operating from Fort William, Calcutta, and Fort Saint George , Madras, on the eastern seaboard.
The company ended up seizing control over large parts of the Indian subcontinent , colonised parts of Southeast Asia , and colonised Hong Kong after a war with Qing China. Originally chartered as the "Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East-Indies",   the company rose to account for half of the world's trade,  particularly in basic commodities including cotton , silk , indigo dye , salt , spices , saltpetre , tea , and opium. The company also ruled the beginnings of the British Empire in India. These Dutch companies amalgamated in March into the United East Indies Company VOC , which introduced the first permanent joint stock from meaning investment into shares did not need to be returned, but could be traded on a stock exchange. By contrast, wealthy merchants and aristocrats owned the EIC's shares. During its first century of operation, the focus of the company was trade, not the building of an empire in India.
Granted a Royal Charter by Queen Elizabeth in , it became one of the most powerful mercantile organizations in the world by maintaining a monopoly on the importation of exotic goods notably cotton, tea, and silk from India into Britain. It also maintained a standing military, which was used in many cases to consolidate and enforce local authority in Indian territories. Official Company rule of India, or raj, began in , and was in full swing during the Romantic period, only coming to a close in following a bloody uprising and revolution. During the Romantic period, two "Charter Acts" regarding the Company were passed. The first, enacted in , renewed the Company's charter for another 20 years, and essentially made very few changes to the established roles of the Company and its officers. By , however, political upheavals, particularly in the case of Warren Hastings , had made the Company's brutal methods a contested topic. Another twenty year renewal of the Company's charter passed, but the act asserted the British crown's absolute sovereignty over Company controlled territories, revoked the Company's monopoly over trade with India, and, perhaps most interestingly, opened Indian territories to missionaries.
The establishment of the British East India Company completely changed the history of India leading to the establishment of the British rule in.
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East India Company
In the late s, European explorers started sailing east for trading purposes. - Queen was herself a share holder in the East India Company.
After inflicting a naval defeat on the Spanish Armeda in the British acquired naval supremacy. This encouraged certain merchant adventurers of London to form a company for trade in the East. The first effort for regular trade with India was made in when the company wanted to establish a factory at Surat. The British Captain Hawkins tried to obtain permission from the Mughal emperor Jahangir to establish a factory at Surat, but the efforts were foiled due to the hostility of the Portuguese. However, in two of the English vessels reached Surat and inflicted a defeat on the Portuguese fleet. In the English succeeded in securing permission from Jahangir to establish their first factory at Surat.